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Linux basic commands tutorial
Submitted by jinlusuh on Thu, 09/24/2009 - 21:32
Basic Linux commands and essential programs
You have learned some Linux commands such as logout, reboot and shutdown commands in the previous section. Those are the most basic Linux commands a user needs to know in order to use Linux. In this tutorial, you are going to learn some more Linux basic commands and essential Linux programs to help you explore your Linux system.
Linux distribution such as Ubuntu has developed a desktop Linux, which includes almost all graphical tools needed to configure Linux applications in x-window. That means, new Linux user doesn't need to learn Linux commands to start using Linux. However, the fact that Linux is a multi-user and multi-tasking operating system means learning Linux commands let user to take full advantage of Linux potentials. The x-window such as KDE or GNOME is just another application in Linux. If something goes wrong, you need to switch to the Linux command line terminal to troubleshoot the problem. Ask all Linux users, they would certainly recommend learning Linux commands, at least some basic commands in Linux.
The first Linux basic command you are going to learn is man command. The man command is a command to display manual or documentation included in the Linux system. It is the most useful command in Linux that will help you use and understand other commands available in the system. You can find more information about man command in Linux man command basic tutorial which was written for a Linux beginner.
The second Linux basic command which every Linux beginner should know is the uname command. The uname command prints information about Linux system. This command is really useful when we are checking our Linux system's kernel version, name, etc. See more information and examples of uname command in Linux uname command tutorial.
Another useful Linux basic command is the Linux env command. The env command let us check, add and modify a Linux user's working environment such as shell, path, mail and so on. These are basic things you should know about your Linux system. See more information about env command in Linux environment variables tutorial.
Linux command line interface is not about typing everything all around. If you are lucky to have seen a Linux guru doing his job in Linux command line interface, then you probably think that he's not from this world. Is he typing that fast? Moving between terminals, pressing keys, you can't barely seen what it is. Wow...
Here I'm going to reveal their secrets so you too can look like a guru and perhaps be one in the future. The secret number one is called Linux history. Linux keeps all your running command in a file called .history. Check this basic Linux tutorial about bash history and learn how you can re-used previous command you typed in Linux command line terminal.
Secret number two is called Linux automatic command completion. It is another favourite tool used by almost all Linux users. It is a program that help identify what you are going to type in Linux command line and complete the command, words or sentence for you. Learn more about this cool Linux feature in Linux automatic command completion tutorial.
Secret number three is the Linux shortcut keys. Linux has several useful shortcut keys by default that you can use in command line terminal. Learn these shortcut keys or key sequences available in Linux shortcut keys tutorial.
That's the basic magic you should learn as a Linux beginner. It's probably enough to impress other gui fellows of yours.
Let's continue to other Linux basic commands. The very important Linux command and perhaps the mostly used command in Linux system is the ls command. It is used to view directory contents. Learn how to use ls command to view hidden files, print result in different format, print directory only and many more in Linux directory listing using ls command tutorial.
When learning all basic Linux commands above, we have come across the Linux cd command. A very simple command yet plays very big role in Linux command line terminal. Check out Linux cd command - explore Linux directory file system to learn what an important command it is.
Here are more useful basic Linux command list that can help you working in the Linux command line terminal:
1) Linux clear command tutorial - Learn Linux clear command which is used to clear terminal screen and see example of the command usage.
2) Linux date command tutorial - Learn more about this important Linux command. The date command can be used to view as well as edit date and time in Linux command line terminal is explained with examples in real situation.
3) Linux who command - Prints information about current login session. The who command offers some options that user can use to see more details about users such as login time, terminal used and process id. Check this out!
4) Linux redirection tutorial - Redirection in Linux means sending command output to another location or file. It is a great support for Linux command.
5) Linux pipe tutorial - Linux pipe operator, which is the | symbol offers great benefits when working in Linux command line terminal. It can be used to combine Linux commands and manipulate the command output.
All Linux basic command tutorials above should expose you to the basic concept of running commands in Linux system. However, those commands only prepare you to explore Linux file system. To do a real administration job using Linux commands, you can continue to the next Linux command's topic and learn how to manage Linux user account.
Linux basic commands to manage Linux user account
Linux and Unix commands can be group into several sections depends on the task. Here's the Linux user account related commands list. It contains every Linux commands needed to manage Linux user account.
1) Linux adduser command - This is the command to create a new user account from Linux or Unix shell(terminal). Description and step by step example of Linux "adduser" command.
2) Linux useradd command - The useradd command is common in Unix and Unix-based operating system. This command is use to create a new user account or update default new user information. Highly useful command for system administrator, so new system administrator, check out this tutorial.
3) Linux userdel command - Learn how to use the Linux userdel command to remove user account from the system. This command will also delete related files in the account. A simple example on how to use userdel command is in here. So check this out.
4) Linux finger command - An example on how to use a Linux finger command. The finger command is use to view account user information. The description with example in this tutorial should make user understand better about Linux finger.
5) Linux last command - This command is used to show last users logged on in the system. Learn how to use this command in an easy to understand step by step examples.
6) Linux groupadd command - Another important task regarding Linux user account is to manage user group. Creating user group is one of the task Linux or Unix system administrator do regularly. Practice how to create a new group in Linux Bourne again shell (bash) with this tutorial.
7) Linux usermod command - Here's the most useful command in user account related commands group. The Linux usermod command is use to modify a user account in the system. No doubt this is the command which does many things. Check out this tutorials and learn what regular options used with usermod command.
Linux basic commands to manage file and directory
Another important topic to learn for a beginner to master Linux is how to handle file and directory in the Linux system. Just like using windows operating system, you need to create new files, create new directory, remove files, remove directories, change file name, copy directory and so on.
Manage files and directories in Linux system is an administration job and also a part of system security. Every file and directory in Linux belongs to a certain owner and group owner. They also have permissions applied. You need to understand both, Linux ownership and Linux permissions before you can manage files and directories in Linux system.
Here is the Linux command list on how to manage Linux file and directory system. They cover most of the Linux basics to handle files and directory including file permissions and ownerships, which is the most important topic here.
1) Linux mkdir command - A basic Linux tutorial with examples on how to use Linux mkdir command to create new directories in Linux system. A simple explanation for a Linux beginner.
2) Linux rmdir command - A basic Linux guide with examples on how to use Linux rmdir command to delete directory in Linux command line terminal. Check this out!.
3) Linux mv command - move or rename files and directory in Linux - Move or change location of a file in Linux using mv command. You can also use Linux mv command to rename a file or a directory.
4) Linux cp command - how to copy file and directory in Linux - The cp command is used to copy file or directory to another location or directory in Linux system. A great yet simple tool to backup files. Check out regular options used with cp command in this step by step tutorial.
5) Linux scp command - copy file and directory from remote computer - What scp does is remotely copying files from other system plus safety transfer. Learn this useful command here.
6) Linux rm command - delete file and directory in Linux - The rm command is used to remove files or directory. In Linux system there is no del or delete command. So user who familiar with windows or dos command prompt, please take note. It's rm not del command. Check this tutorial for more information about how to delete file or directory in Linux system.
7) Linux locate command tutorial - Linux locate command is a search utility in Linux. It can be found by default in almost all Linux distributions including Slackware and Ubuntu Linux. This tutorial is a basic locate command guide for a new Linux user. Check this out!
Linux basic commands to manage file system
These are another useful Linux basic commands for beginner to learn and explore the Linux system. Linux file system related commands are those commands you need to deal with file system such as mounting and unmounting a file system (such as windows FAT file system), view file system and hard disk space and many more.
Here is the list of regular used Linux commands to handle file system in Linux:
1) Linux mount command - Linux mount command is used to mount a file system. Linux does not mount file system automatically when you insert a thumb drive or external hard disk. This is because mounting a file system involves security and permission. Read more information in this tutorial.
2) Linux fdisk command - check hard disk partitions - The Linux fdisk command is a popular tool used to create hard disk partitions. However, fdisk command also can be used to check hard disk partitions on the running Linux system.
3) Linux df command - monitor Linux hard disk usage - Report file system disk space usage with Linux df command. See an example on how to use df command in Linux system.
Linux basic commands to manage Linux processes
Linux processes (similar to Windows processes) which also called Linux services are programs running when Linux is started. This is an easy jargon and most used recently to help less confusing Linux beginner (which mostly have Windows background). However, the term 'daemon' is widely used in Linux community to refer the Linux services.
Here is the Linux command list that every user should know to view and manage Linux processes:
1) Linux ps command - Report a snapshot of current processes. Learn more about Linux ps command such as different options in Unix, BSD and how Linux process is different from Windows process.
2) Linux reboot command - Restart Linux system. Check out this Linux tutorial on how to bring down Linux system.