Linux basic configurations - Linux installation http://basicconfig.com/taxonomy/term/2 en Linux hard disk partition http://basicconfig.com/linux/fdisk <!-- google_ad_section_start --><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><h2>Final preparation for the Linux Installation</h2> <p>It is important to prepare yourself with some documentations before starting the Linux installation. This is because Linux need extra informations during setup process. Start with gathering your computer hardware's manual, such as your CPU, RAM, VGA, monitor, keyboard, mouse and so on. If you are reading from the beginning of this Linux basic tutorials, then you should already completed the gathering information part which is called the pre-installation checklist.</p> <p>Again, please check that you have all the lists below before doing the actual installation::</p> <ol><li><a href="chklist">Pre-installation checklist</a> - Make sure to complete the checklist.</li> <li>Installation manual - This page can be a reference manual. However, better have the actual installation manual from your Linux distribution website.</li> <li>Installation media - The Linux cd or dvd installer, floppy or usb drive boot disk, or any installation method you choose. If you not sure, here's what you should check first: <a href="/linux/install/">Linux installation methods</a> tutorial.</li> </ol><p>If you have completed all the lists above, then it's time to put your Linux installer in and begin the installation journey. The crucial part in Linux installation is doing the Linux hard disk partition. Most Linux distributions today offer a menu driven hard disk partition tool which makes it easier for a new user. Although it's not as easier as partitioning hard disk in Windows XP, but with the right documentation, user can get through it.</p> <p>The great partition tool from the beginning of Linux is fdisk. Many distributions still using it such as Slackware. The example of using Slackware fdisk is included in this tutorial. There is also an example of Ubuntu hard disk partition with screenshots example in <a href="/manual_partition_album">Ubuntu manual partition help</a>.</p> <h2>Linux partition size</h2> <p>In Linux, there are many mount point or system directory such as /boot, /home, /usr/, /var, etc (like a drive, in Windows we have drive C). User can create a different partitions for each system directory. But in order to do that, user needs to know the characteristics of each system directory. Each system directory in Linux holds specific Linux file. For example the /home mount point keeps user account home directory. The /var mount point keeps system logs. The /etc mount point keeps configuration files. More informations about Linux mount point or system directory can be found in <a href="">Linux file system overview</a> tutorial.</p> <p>You don't have to provide a large hard disk space for Linux. The minimum size of Linux partition can be:</p> <ul><li> / - 35 MB</li> <li>/boot - 5 MB</li> <li>/home - 100 MB</li> <li>/tmp - 30 MB</li> <li>/usr/local - 232 MB</li> <li>/var - 25 MB</li> <li>/swap - 2 x RAM</li> </ul><p>Linux hard disk partition size is really depends on your system. What do you want it to be? A DNS server, mail server, FTP server, firewall, router, desktop, whatever. If you you are a beginner and want to learn everything on Linux, then install all. For an example, on a 20 GB hard disk, you can set a partition of:</p> <ul><li>/swap - 2 x RAM</li> <li>/ - Remaining</li> </ul><p>All other Linux partitions such as /usr, /bin, /sbin, /etc, /var and so on will be under / (root) automatically. This is the most simple and basic Linux hard disk partition size. You can choose this kind of partition for a desktop Linux or a laptop.</p> <p>If you are planning to create a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server, you need extra large hard disk partition for /home directory because all shared data will be kept in /home/ftp directory (default Slackware Linux). I already mentioned that /home directory will automatically put under / directory but it's a good idea to create separate hard disk partition for /home mount point. The advantage is that, when you upgrade Linux, you don't have to worry about screw up all the ftp data.</p> <h2>Linux fdisk command</h2> <p>In Slackware Linux, there are two programs which you can use to create partitions. You can use either <strong>fdisk</strong>(8) or <strong>cfdisk</strong>(8). If you are familiar with fdisk program in windows 9x, then you are on the track.</p> <p>The first IDE hard disk in Linux is known as <strong>hda</strong>, the second hard disk is <strong>hdb</strong>, and so on. For a SCSI hard disk it’s called <strong>sda</strong>, <strong>sdb</strong>, and so on. Linux detects SATA hard disk the same as scsi, first hard disk as <strong>sda</strong>, second hard disk as <strong>sdb</strong> and so on.The hard disks are located in /dev directory. In this example, the Linux partition is done by using fdisk tool in Slackware Linux.</p> <p>At the shell prompt, type <strong>fdisk /dev/hda</strong> and press ENTER.</p> <table><tr><td># <strong>fdisk /dev/hda</strong></td> </tr></table><p>The program begins. The <strong>fdisk</strong>gives you a prompt. If you never use fdisk before, press <strong>m</strong> for help.</p> <table><tr><td><strong>Command (m for help): m</strong></td> </tr></table><p> This will display all the options that you can use with fdisk. Press<strong> p </strong>to view the partition table on the hard disk.</p> <table><tr><td><strong>Command (m for help): p</strong></td> </tr></table><p>You can see a partition number, the size of the partition, and its type. Let’s assume that you already backup your vital data in the hard disk. Now we are free to use fdisk to delete and create partitions for Linux. ENTER the <strong>d</strong> command to delete partition:</p> <table><tr><td>Command (m for help): d<br /> Partition number (1-4): 1</td> </tr></table><p> Continue this process until you delete all the partitions in the hard disk. In this example we are going to create two partitions, the root (/) partitions and swap partitions.</p> <p> Now enter <strong>n</strong> to create a new partition and press ENTER:</p> <table><tr><td>Command (m for help):<strong>n</strong><br /> Command action<br /> e extended<br /> p primary partition (1-4)<br /><strong>p</strong><br /> Partition number (1-4):<strong>1</strong><br /> First cylinder (0-1060, default 0):<strong>0</strong><br /> Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-1060, default 1060):<strong>+256M</strong></td> </tr></table><p> Enter <strong>p</strong> for primary partition. This is our first partition, so enter <strong>1</strong> and leave the First cylinder to <strong>0</strong> default). Let’s create this partition for swap partition. The size of swap partition depends on the size of RAM in the computer. Normally the swap space is double size of the RAM. If you have 128 MB RAM, then put 256 MB as your swap partition. Key in the size for our first partition in +sizeM or +sizeK format.</p> <p> When you finished with the first partition, repeat the steps above to create the second partition (Partition number 2). Choose default value for the First cylinder. This is going to be the root (/) partition so just give all the remaining space unless you are planning differently.</p> <p>Press ENTER when you finish.</p> <table><tr><td>Command (m for help):<strong>n</strong><br /> Command action<br /> e extended<br /> p primary partition (1-4)<br /><strong>p</strong><br /> Partition number (1-4):<strong>2</strong><br /> First cylinder (255-1060, default 255):<strong>255</strong><br /> Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (266-1060, default 1060):<strong>1060</strong></td> </tr></table><p> You can check your new partitions by entering <strong>p</strong> character and press ENTER. Note that you have two partitions that you have just created. </p> <p>Before writing this data into the hard disk, you must set the partition type to this partition. Type <strong>t </strong>to change the partition type. For the first partition, which is swap space, change the partition type to <strong>82</strong> in Hex (Linux swap). The Linux native partition type is 83 in Hex. Now we are done. Enter <strong>w</strong> to write everything we have done and quit fdisk.</p> <p>If you are looking for Slackware 12.1 fdisk partition screenshots, check it in <a href="/slackware_partitioning_fdisk">Slackware partitioning with fdisk screenshots</a> gallery.</p> <p><a href="/linux/install_guide">Continue Linux installation guide.</a> </p> </div></div></div><!-- google_ad_section_end --><div class="field field-name-field-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above"><div class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" rel="dc:subject"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Linux installation</a></div></div></div> Mon, 15 Sep 2008 16:11:29 +0000 jinlusuh 9 at http://basicconfig.com http://basicconfig.com/linux/fdisk#comments Linux installation guide http://basicconfig.com/linux/install_guide <!-- google_ad_section_start --><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><p>Linux installation won't be a problem any more with a step by step screenshot examples. Here are Slackware Linux and Ubuntu Linux installation tutorials for you: </p> <h2>Slackware Linux installation</h2> <p>Slackware has a great installation tool called <b>Setup</b> program. It has been used for many releases and still kicking. Many Linux users stick to Slackware and one of the reason is it has a simple but powerful installation and configuration tool. Up until the released of Slackware 14.1, the setup configuration steps are still the same.</p> <p>You can find a step by step Slackware 14.1 installation screenshots in the Screenshots section. To make it easy for a beginner, we've divided the installation sections into several parts. We've decided to include the advanced steps as well but separated into different sections. That means, a Slackware beginner can have a basic and easy installation while other, who wish to try advanced installation can check the steps in other tutorials. Here are the links to Slackware 14.1 installation screenshots tutorials:</p> <p> <a href="/slackware_installation_guide">Slackware 14.1 installation guide</a> - The first section of Slackware 14.1 installation steps. </p> <p> <a href="/slackware_partitioning_fdisk">Slackware partitioning with fdisk</a> - A step by step guides on how to partition hard disk for Slackware. </p> <p> <a href="/slackware_linux_setup_program">Slackware Linux Setup program</a> - The main event, running Slackware Setup program to install Slackware into hard disk. </p> <p> <a href="/slackware_dhcp_network_setup_screenshots">Slackware dhcp network setup</a> - A guide to setup dhcp for your network card during installation process. </p> <p> <a href="/slackware_static_ip_network_setup">Slackware static ip network setup</a> - A guide to setup static ip address for your network card during installation process. </p> <p> <a href="/expert-lilo-installation">Expert LILO installation</a> - This tutorial is a step by step screenshots directs the creation of the LILO config file, lilo.conf. </p> <h2>Ubuntu Linux installation</h2> <p>Ubuntu installation is now easier than ever (Ubuntu 13.10 and newer). The "Easy Install' program will do it all for you. Here are older version tutorial just being kept as an archive. </p> <p>* Step by step Ubuntu server and Ubuntu desktop installation with screenshots guide for beginner. The installation help and advanced steps are also included in different tutorials.</p> <p><a href="/ubuntu_installation_screenshots">Ubuntu server installation screenshots</a> - A basic Ubuntu server installation steps for beginner.</p> <p><a href="/ubuntu/installation_help">Ubuntu server installation help menu screenshots</a> - Ubuntu server installation help menu guides for beginner.</p> <p><a href="/manual_partition_album">Ubuntu server manual partition help screenshots</a> - Ubuntu server guides to manually partition hard disk.</p> <p><a href="/ubuntu_desktop_installation_screenshots">Ubuntu Desktop 8.10 installation screenshots</a> - A basic Ubuntu Desktop 8.10 installation screenshots for a beginner.</p> <p><a href="/ubuntu_desktop_manual_partition_guide">Ubuntu desktop manual partition guide</a> - Ubuntu desktop guides to manually partition hard disk.</p> </div></div></div><!-- google_ad_section_end --><div class="field field-name-field-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above"><div class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" rel="dc:subject"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Linux installation</a></div></div></div> Wed, 10 Sep 2008 15:15:34 +0000 jinlusuh 10 at http://basicconfig.com http://basicconfig.com/linux/install_guide#comments Linux installation troubleshooting http://basicconfig.com/linux/troubleshooting <!-- google_ad_section_start --><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><p>In the early years of Linux, it's hard to get Linux installation done on the first try. This is usually because of hardware compatibility and driver support. During those days, choosing computer hardware and components are vital. It's very important to check for hardware compatibility lists in the Linux distribution's website before going shopping. However, due to the Linux reputation and popularity today, many computer manufacturers, even a well-known company provides pre-installation Linux in their product. </p> <p>A normal problem occurs during or after Linux installation would be the video card (video graphic adapter), network interface card (NIC), package installation problems, ide and sata drives and X-window system. That's the common problems. Other installation problems most certainly happen because user do not properly read or follow installation guide manual. If that's the case, please don't go in every Linux forum and ask for solution. The solution is very simple, start over, and this time please take it seriously, make proper preparations, read documentation, etc. Read previous topics: <a href="http://www.basicconfig.com/linux/intro">Introduction to Linux</a>, <a href="http://www.basicconfig.com/linux/chklist">Pre-installation checklist</a> and <a href="http://www.basicconfig.com/linux/install">Linux installation methods</a> to have a basic ideas of what to be done.</p> <p>If you are lucky enough to have errors during installation (yes correct, it's "lucky"), then the first troubleshooting step you can take is check files below and you should find if there is an error in your system. View these files to troubleshoot your Linux installation problem. You will find that at the end of the day, the troubleshooting job makes you understand more about Linux system and how it works.</p> <ul><li>/var/log/dmesg - Check hardware.</li> <li>/var/log/messages - Check Linux message log.</li> <li>/var/log/syslog - Check Linux system log.</li> </ul><h2>Reconfigure Linux installation</h2> <p>The second Linux installation troubleshooting is to re-configure Linux installation. If you need to re-configure your software or hardware, check this list:</p> <ul><li>pkgtool - Software package maintenance tool. Install, remove or view<br /> packages. </li> <li>fdisk or cfdisk - Partitioning.</li> <li>/boot/grub/grub.conf - GRUB boot loader.</li> <li>/etc/lilo.conf - LiLo boot loader.</li> <li>netconfig - Networking (ethernet and tcp/ip)</li> <li>timeconfig - Time zone</li> <li>adduser - User accounts</li> <li>xorgsetup - Reconfigure X window system</li> <li>xorgconfig - Reconfigure mouse, keyboard, x window.</li> </ul><h2>Linux important scripts location</h2> <p>Below are Slackware Linux important scripts location. If you are using different Linux distribution, you can find the script with find, whereis and locate commands.</p> <p>Configuration and startup scripts</p> <ul><li> /etc/inittab - run level setting script</li> <li>/etc/rc.d - startup script</li> </ul><p>General purpose Linux network configuration scripts</p> <ul><li>/etc/hosts - store hostname and IP address</li> <li>/etc/inetd.conf - execution information for on demand system services</li> <li>/etc/resolv.conf - contains DNS server addresses</li> <li>/etc/services - contains names and ports of network services</li> <li>/etc/nsswitch.conf - Sequences that the Linux system looks for the<br /> network services</li> </ul><p>Linux installation is not a big deal anymore nowadays. If you really cannot troubleshoot your Linux problems, you can search for solution in the Internet. There are millions of Linux users out there. Someone should have the same problem as yours before. Check out problem solution in your Linux distributions official forum. You can provide details of your problem and ask in the forum. There are many Linux experts out there who are willing to help. There are some tips and tutorials on Linux installation troubleshooting that you can check if it's related to problem.</p> <p>1. Reconfigure LILO: <a href="/linuxtips/cannot-boot-linux-after-installation-slackware">Cannot boot Slackware Linux after installation</a>.</p> </div></div></div><!-- google_ad_section_end --><div class="field field-name-field-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above"><div class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" rel="dc:subject"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Linux installation</a></div></div></div> Tue, 29 Jan 2008 14:22:43 +0000 jinlusuh 11 at http://basicconfig.com http://basicconfig.com/linux/troubleshooting#comments Pre-installation checklist http://basicconfig.com/linux/chklist <!-- google_ad_section_start --><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><p>Pre-installation checklist is the must have documentation before begin installation of any operating system, not just Linux. Basically, pre-installation checklist is an information about the whole system from computer hardware components, software, version, license key and networking data and hardware information.</p> <h2>Hardware</h2> <p>Information about hardware can be found in the manufacturer's manual. If the manual is missing, check hardware name and version (should be printed on the component) and search it's information in the manufacturer's website.</p> <p>Central Processing Unit (CPU)</p> <ul><li>Processor Type - i386, i486, DX2, etc :</li> <li>Processor Speed - Maximum speed in MHz :</li> </ul><p>Random Access Memory (RAM)</p> <ul><li>Memory Size - Size in MB :</li> </ul><p>Mouse/ Mice</p> <ul><li>Type - PS/2, USB, etc :</li> <li>How many buttons? :</li> </ul><p>Keyboard</p> <ul><li>Type - PS/2, USB : </li> <li>How many keys? :</li> </ul><p>CD-ROM drive</p> <ul><li>Manufacturer - Sony, Samsung, etc :</li> <li>Type - IDE, ATAPI, SCSI, etc :</li> </ul><p>Hard Disk Drive</p> <ul><li>Manufacturer - Seagate, Maxtor, etc :</li> <li>Type - IDE, SCSI, SATA, etc :</li> <li>Size - Size in MB :</li> </ul><p>Video card (VGA)</p> <ul><li>Manufacturer - ATI, NVIDIA, etc :</li> <li>Memory size - Size in MB :</li> </ul><p>Display Monitor</p> <ul><li>Manufacturer :</li> <li>Size of the screen - 14", 15", 17", etc :</li> <li>Resolutions :</li> <li>Vertical refresh rate/ Vertical sync. frequency :</li> <li>Horizontal refresh rate/ Horizontal sync.frequency :</li> </ul><p>Printer</p> <ul><li>Manufacturer :</li> <li>Type :</li> <li>Port :</li> </ul><p>Networking information can be check with ipconfig command in Windows Command Prompt and ifconfig in Linux terminal.</p> <ul><li>Hostname :</li> <li>Domain name :</li> <li>IP address :</li> <li>Netmask :</li> <li>DNS IP addresss :</li> <li>Router IP address :</li> </ul><p><a href="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Pre-Installation-Checklist/checklist.html" target="_blank">GNU/Linux pre-installation checklist</a> - A complete pre-installation checklist.</p> <p>You can also proceed to the next tutorial: <a href="/linux/install">Linux installation methods.</a></p> </div></div></div><!-- google_ad_section_end --><div class="field field-name-field-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above"><div class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" rel="dc:subject"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Linux installation</a></div></div></div> Tue, 29 Jan 2008 14:19:42 +0000 basicroot 7 at http://basicconfig.com http://basicconfig.com/linux/chklist#comments Linux installation methods http://basicconfig.com/linux/install <!-- google_ad_section_start --><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><p>There are many methods to install Linux. Depends on what you prefer, Linux has almost all installation methods available for you. You can use traditional way, using floppy or cd-rom installer or via network.</p> <h2>CD-ROM or DVD-ROM</h2> <p>Normally, people use CD-ROM or DVD-ROM to install operating system these days. That’s including Linux. User can download the official release Linux iso image from whatever distributions they choose from distribution's official website and burn into cd or dvd. They also have many mirrors in regions around the world which provide cd and dvd iso image download using FTP or HTTP for faster download. Some distributions have torrent file too if you prefer p2p. </p> <p>Another option is you can buy Linux installation cd/dvd online. Almost all famous Linux distributions have on-line shop or distributor in their official website. This is a great way to support Linux community who spend their precious time to develop and compile packages and give it for free. Normally they provide the Linux distribution book or documentation and some even provide supports. That's a great news for a small company who's planning to expand their business because Linux offers a small price for an excellent performance and benefits.</p> <h2>Install Linux over the Internet</h2> <p>It is also possible to install Linux without cd or dvd. User can do an installation over the Internet which some Linux distributions do provide the service, such as Debian, OpenSUSE, Fedora and Ubuntu. To use this installation method, you need a permanent Internet connection. Normally the way it works are, first you download a small floppy or usb stick or CD image file which contains the necessary programs to enable you install the rest from the network.</p> <h2>Floppy</h2> <p>In the early days of Linux, floppy is the only method to install Linux in your system. Although most of Linux distributions now available in bootable CD, it is still possible to install Linux from floppy disks. Some Linux distributions such as Slackware and Debian provide a boot floppy to begin the installation. The boot floppy contains a compressed kernel image used to manage the computer hardware throughout the installation process. Then you can proceed with another floppy to install a very basic Linux system in your computer. Now you can install the rest of the distribution through a network.</p> <h2>NFS</h2> <p> If you need to install Linux on many machines, you can use NFS (Network File System). NFS makes it easier and faster because it allows you to install Linux on your local network. However, you need to configure the NFS server in order to make it available to remote machines.</p> <p>Being an open source, Linux has become a great interest for researcher, students, and personal user. Linux can be customized to be how and what user wants it to be. Get the latest stable kernel, software and packages from the Internet and compile them. Here are the lists of some useful sites and distributions:</p> <ul><li><a href="http://www.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Archives</a><br />Get the Linux source code here. This is the Linux kernel official website. They provide many useful articles, latest news and information about Linux kernel.</li> <li><a href="http://packages.debian.org">Debian Packages</a><br />Debian packages archive. Get Debian official package distributions, stable and testing packages also extra packages which did not included in the official distribution due to either a restrictive license or legal issues. </li> <li><a href="http://www.slackware.com/packages/">The Slackware Package Browser</a> <br />Get Slackware-current, latest stable or previous released packages here. </li> <li><a href="http://rpm.pbone.net/">RPM Packages Search</a><br />Contain rpm packages for different Linux distributions but share the same rpm tool. User have a choice to search rpm package for one distribution, or shared rpm package used by different version or distributions. </li> <li><a href="http://packages.ubuntu.com/">Ubuntu Packages Search</a><br />The home of Ubuntu packages archive. It provides information about all packages available in Ubuntu from different releases.</li> </ul></div></div></div><!-- google_ad_section_end --><div class="field field-name-field-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above"><div class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</div><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" rel="dc:subject"><a href="/taxonomy/term/2" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Linux installation</a></div></div></div> Tue, 29 Jan 2008 09:11:36 +0000 jinlusuh 8 at http://basicconfig.com http://basicconfig.com/linux/install#comments